The Foochow Festival at China
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The Foochow Festival at China In the Southern province of Fukien and Kwangtung, China, and if you are an avid kite flyer, there is an amazing kite flying competition held every year and a must visit destination for kite enthusiasts. At the Foochow Kite Festival, the kites displayed are immense mean machines with greatest ingenuity of design and heavens are flooded with thousands of colourful kites  [...]

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Mohenjo Daro: The rich Indus Valley civilization

Posted on November 17, 2010 | Historic DestinationOne Comment



Exactly meaning the Mound of the Dead, Mohenjo Daro refers to an ancient civilization that once was the pride of the Indus valley. However, even today this lost city of the Indus valley is continuing to be the most visited site in Pakistan for two reasons – archaeology and tourism. Also known as the Ancient Indus Valley Metropolis, the Mohenjo Daro civilization is now in ruins, but is designated as a World Heritage site. We all have read about it in our history books, but what is more interesting about it is the fact that it is among the largest city-settlements adorning the Sindh Province in Pakistan.

The archaeologists are of the opinion that the Mohenjo Daro civilization was set in 2600 BCE and that it was considered as among the early urban communities on the planet. As per the excavation, it was found that the city was originally built on a Pleistocene ridge of the flood plain. However, this ridge is today sunken – all thanks to the repeated floods of the Indus River. This same reason was also responsible for the fact that the city of Mohenjo Daro was damaged and reinstated for a minimum of seven times. One more feature you will notice here is of the Mesoamerican ruins – each new set up of the city was on the relics of the previous remains of the city. Protected by the Mother Nature for a long time since 1500 BCE, the city was spotted in 1922 by an Indian officer who was from the Archaeological Survey of India. However, this official was leaded by a Buddhist monk who thought the remains to be of a big stupa.

On my trip to explore the Mohenjo Daro civilization in the Indus valley, I traveled for 25 km from the Larkana town. It is worth a note that the set up of the whole city took place on an intended layout of the systematic street network. As you roam here, gaze thoroughly at its antiquity, I mean the relics that seem to be quite advanced. These are made up of bricks of flamed wood, which are even in size and are dried in sun and baked mud.

Overall the entire city of Mohenjo Daro was originally split into two sections namely, the Citadel and the Lower City. The former is the site of the two huge assembly walls, a big residential edifice that can accommodate 5,000 people, and public bath; whereas, the Lower City is yet to be dug.

Look for the Great Granary that is actually not a granary, but was initially named so because of its layout and design. Now known as the Great Hall, this structure boasts an inlet as well as a channel. The former is believed to be the path of the incoming crop carts; while the latter seems to have circulated the air until the stocked grain zone so that the process of drying could be facilitated. But as not a single proof of any kind of grain was seen, the former name was then overcome by ‘Great Hall’. Next to this one is a structure that seems to be local. This is the great public bath that is a luxurious as well as bloated bath area. In the olden days, there was a pool in its middle too and the entire structure was built via natural tar to avoid any leakage. Several experts believe that this pool was used for many religious rituals.

Speaking about the houses, a few of them were well equipped with the rooms that were meant for bathing. How do we know? Well, look for the channelizing of waste water via the enclosed drains that reach up to the streets. Each dwelling is only limited to the internal courtyards and trivial streets. And that, some of these residences soar high up to two storeys. The existence of the wells both large and small and a central market indicates that the Mohenjo Daro civilization in the Indus Valley was agriculturally fit. Further, look for an edifice that has an underground hypocaust, a furnace that is thought to be the place where warmth was generated for hot bathing.

One more interesting feature is its fortification. Even in those early days, the people of this city knew how to erect a fortified city with towers that could be seen in the west. In the south, there are relics of the defending ramparts too. This becomes even more surprising because actually no real city walls are seen here today.

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